The Sun in the solar system is the closest star to the Earth and belongs to the dwarf star constellation and the sun accounts for 99% of the total solar mass. Scientists estimate it to be four and a half billion years old when a nebula of mostly hydrogen gas is concentrated and circulates around itself generating enough energy and pressure to combine atoms According to scientists, according to the amount of hydrogen remaining, the rest of the life of the sun is about five billion years only, then the red giant swallows the orbits of the planet that revolves around it and then begin to decay and shrink until it reaches a white dwarf much smaller Of the current size and then to a black dwarf after that, but these transformations and changes take billions of years from one stage to another, and knows the unseen but God, but these scientific assumptions based on mathematical calculations with mathematical assumptions and possibilities only, and these assumptions may be true or not Complete, and other new theories may appear to change and modify current theories.
Location of the sun
The sun is located in one of the arms of the Milky Way galaxy. It is about 30,000 light years away from the center of the galaxy. The sun belongs to a small, open star cluster of approximately 140 stars. The sun revolves around the center of the galaxy every 250 million years. The sun also moves another perpendicular to its orbit around The center of the galaxy achieves one quake every 28 million years
Description of the sun
The sun mass is estimated at about 90 trillion trillion tons – the trillion is equal to one million million – that is, 330,000 times the earth mass, which is enough power to create enough gravity to maintain the entire solar system. It is 149,600 kilometers (93 million miles) away from the nearest star 4.3 light years.
The sun’s temperature is 14 million degrees Celsius and its surface is about 5,500 degrees Celsius. The sunspots are less hot at 4,000 degrees Celsius. The solar wind speed is 3 million kilometers per hour and the sun or solar energy generated is about 390 billion megawatts. The sun radiates about 10 million tons every second of its substance, and loses 600 million tons every second of its substance by nuclear reactions in its heart.
Components of the sun
In the process of energy production, the hydrogen atom is converted to helium, which accounts for 7.8% of the components of the sun and the rest, such as oxygen, which represents 0.06%, carbon, sulfur and nitrogen.
The sun is composed of several layers, the center of the sun, the nucleus, which is made up of compressed gas. The pressure inside the center equals 340 billion times the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the sea in the earth. In a case called plasma (other cases of solid, liquid, gas) The state in which the part of the material is exposed to heat and pressure is enormous and the electron begins to escape from its nucleus. The plasma state is the source of the energy output that moves outward and passes through layers of the sun. Leaks to the upper layers, and in fact the process protects For the photon of energy and its outburst of energy takes about a million years and there during the process of Chih Boiling energy comes out.
- Photosphere area
Which is the lower layer of the sun’s atmosphere and the thickness of about 500 km, and the launch of solar radiation, which is located in visible light and temperature of about 5000 degrees Celsius.
- The chromosphere area
Its thickness extends to a few thousand kilometers and its constituent gases are less dense and more transparent than the photosphere and their radiation is weak in visible light, but strong in X-rays, ultraviolet and radial, with a temperature of about 100,000 Kelvin.
- Corona area halo
Which is the outer layer of the sun’s atmosphere and extends millions of kilometers, where the density and transparency of gases from the chromosphere and its radiation is weak in visible light, but strong in the ultraviolet light and ultraviolet, Sinaitic and radial, and the temperature reaches millions of degrees
A phenomenon that repeats continuously during an activity cycle that is repeated every 11 years. When magnetic energy increases and is suddenly released, a very bright white light is emitted as a result. It was first observed in September 1859 by the British astronomer Richard Carrington when he followed the sunspots and noticed the appearance of white light Suddenly, the solar explosion releases electrically charged gases at a speed of three million kilometers per hour toward the Earth, some penetrating the magnetic envelope, and affecting one layer of the atmosphere, the ionosphere. These high-energy particles disturb the ionic state of the layer An ionosphere that works to save the Earth’s magnetic field, which affects radio communications on Earth, especially as it relies on electromagnetic waves.
It is one of the biggest factors affecting the Earth’s magnetosphere in the upper atmosphere, with free negative electrons, nuclei of hydrogen atoms and helium containing positive protons. The solar wind usually runs at 320 kilometers per second, but may rise to more From 800 kilometers per second at the peak of solar activity, especially when explosions occur. The sun destroys its magnetic field every 1,000 years. The Earth has changed its magnetic field 176 times since its inception 4550 million years ago and no one knows how it happens.
Are areas of disturbance and dark spaces on the surface of the sun resulting from the concentration of magnetic fields is uneven. And are colder than the areas around them, making them less fading than the surrounding areas and appear in the shape of a round spot or oval center is relatively dark and be filled with a magnetic card can be launched as a volcano, and grow spots and expand and take a week to two weeks and take about two weeks to fade .