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Particle accelerator and its use in the scientific and medical field

particle accelerator An electrical device that accelerates the movement of atomic particles such as electrons or protons and gives them a large amount of energy.

usage of particle accelerator

 particle accelerator
usage of particle accelerator
  •  Scientists use particle accelerator in their research on the nucleus and maize, where physicists have been able to change the atom of an element into an atom of another element. This change is called nuclear transformation

 

  • Of interactions that occur when accelerated particles collide with the nucleus of an atom. High-energy accelerators help physicists discover new particles, and study the relationship of these particles by the force that binds the components of the nucleus to each other. These new particles are generated when the nucleus is broken by electrons or protons that are accelerated at high speeds. For this reason, accelerators are sometimes called corn mills
  • particle accelerator have other important uses. In the industry, electron accelerators are used as high-power x-ray machines that reveal the hidden cracks of cast metals
    In the production of semiconductors. In medicine, accelerators are used as X-ray machines to diagnose and treat cancer

In cyclotron

The particle is drawn from the source of the ion out through one of the semicircular poles called d
. The magnetic field affects the movement of the particle in a circular path. Each time the particle cuts off an accelerated gap, it receives energy that drives it to move out until it hits the target.

How accelerators work?

How accelerators work
How accelerators work

The accelerators vary in size and design, but they all work in one way. They all use electrically charged particles only. Most accelerators use charged electrons with negative charges, or positively charged protons. These particles are produced by devices outside the accelerator itself, then released into the chamber or the vacuum tube in the accelerator.
Accelerators accelerate particles by an electric field
An area of space where wattage affects charged particles. This area is generally generated during a gap between electrodes between them. When particles pass through this accelerated gap
The electric field accelerates particles by affecting their charge.
In the synchronous accelerator

The particle is bent through the magnetic field to move in a circular orbit. Because of the particle’s acquisition of energy, the magnetic field grows strongly to maintain its movement in the same path. After crossing the accelerated gap for a number of times the particle reaches the peak of the energy to rush out quickly towards the target.
The amount of energy gained by the particles is proportional to the voltage generated to produce the electric field. In high-energy accelerators, particles pass through a series of small acceleration impulses, gaining energy, and some low-energy accelerators use one fixed electrostatic field to accelerate particles.
Physicists measure the energy of accelerated particles in units called the electron volts
. The accelerators can generate particles of energy in the range of thousands of electron volts (kV), millions of volts of electron volts, billions of electron volts, or trillions of electron volts.

Types of particle accelerator

particle accelerator
Types of particle accelerator

Accelerators are classified according to the type of path followed by the accelerator. There are two main types of accelerators: circular and linear accelerators
.

In linear accelerator

The particle moves in a straight line through the tensile tubes. As the particle passes the accelerated gaps between the tubes, it gains speed and starts building energy. The heavy-duty pipe manages to maintain its speed, so it hits the target with maximum force.

Circular accelerators

Using a number of large magnets, to produce a strong magnetic field that makes particles travel in circular orbits. Particles pass through these orbits during the same accelerated gap in each cycle.

The electric field travels across the gap at a high frequency, changing the phase
When passing particles. In other words, the sphere accelerates the particles in their direction as soon as the gap crosses. This process is called resonance acceleration

Circular accelerators include many types of machines with different characteristics.

In cyclotron
, For example, demonstrate the value of the magnetic field, and the particles take a spiral path that is outwardly outward with increasing energy. In expedited commitment
The magnetic field grows stronger every time the particles receive a boost of energy, making the particles move in a circular orbit with a fixed radius. And Betatron
, Such as synchronous accelerator, has an increasingly potent magnetic field. But this magnetic field has more influence than connecting the particles in their circular path. As the magnetic field increases, it also produces an electric field that accelerates particles.

Linear accelerators
Make the atomic particles move in a straight line. Particles move in one type of linear accelerators through a series of pipes called the dendrites
, Separated by accelerated gaps. The fast-moving electrical field accelerates particles as they pass through those gaps, and the flow pipes enable particles to flow from one gap to another without loss of speed.

Another type of linear accelerator accelerates particles through a single long tube by means of an electromagnetic wave moving with particles. The wave transmits particles to higher energies regularly as they move from the beginning of the tube to its end.

brief history of particle accelerator

In 1932, physicist John Cockroft of Britain and Ernest Walton of Ireland had the lead in breaking the nucleus of the atom with accelerated particles. Their proton accelerators speeded up to 500 thousand electrons. Over the years scientists from Europe and America developed accelerators capable of generating great energies. In 1967, physicists from the former Soviet Union built a 76 billion electron voltron accelerator at Syrbachev. In 1972, American physicists accelerated protons to 400 billion electron volts, using a large synchronous accelerator. This was at the Fermi National Laboratory for Acceleration in Batavia, Illinois, USA. In 1986, a new synchronous accelerator was used to accelerate protons to an energy of 900 billion electron volts.
In 1987, the superconductor accelerator of protons at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland, accelerated oxygen nuclei to more than three trillion electron volts. The particle velocity has reached 99,9999% of the speed of light.
In 1988, the US government announced a plan to build the world’s largest accelerator near Waxahake, Texas. The circular accelerator will be about 85 km and superconducting magnets will be used to propel the protons to a capacity of about 40 trillion electron volts. However, the US House of Representatives issued a decision to cancel the project after it was launched in October 1993 because of its high cost of about 11 billion American dollar.

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